Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

HACCP is a systematic, science-based risk analysis technique, which allows Food Business Operators to identify specific food safety hazards and control measures to ensure the production of safe food. Focusing on prevention, it must identify the steps in the operations which are critical to food safety, determine effective control procedures to implement and monitor, and include review when changes occur.

HACCP systems are applied throughout the food supply chain to produce products that are safe and suitable for consumption, by eliminating and/or reducing risks of the identified hazards.

A successful application of HACCP principles requires the full commitment and involvement of all levels of an organization, which provides the confidence in food safety and brand trust that should never be compromised

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Identify and Reduce Risk

This systematic approach to food safety identifies critical risks and assist you to establish validated critical control points and procedures that will minimize the risk of costly recalls, foodborne illnesses/injury or outbreaks

Due Diligence

The ability to demonstrate robust food safety practices are in place through validation and verification will reduce uncertainty and is essential to prove compliance.


Expectations Manual for Food Manufacturing and Food Packaging Facilities: Version 2.0

What Is It?

HACCP is composed of 12 steps: 5 Preliminary Steps & 7 Principles that form the basis for all global food safety standards under Codex Alimentarius. It can successfully be applied to all sectors of the food change from the farm, to raw materials (ingredients, packaging), and finished products.

Identification of Hazards and the Necessary Risk Control Measures

The HACCP team should list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step of the process. Once this has been completed, each of the hazards identified must be assessed for significance (likelihood x severity) and then consideration is given to what controls can be applied to each of the hazards.


Hazard analysis must consider the following:

  1. Raw Material Hazards (incoming goods)
  2. Process Hazards (steps, equipment)
  3. Product Hazards (intended or unintended use)
Identification and Criteria of Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs)

The basis for all HACCP plans is to ensure the foundational requirements of GHP’s are established, specific to the type of operation and products produced. GHP’s include but are not limited to; facility design, cleanliness, personal hygiene and practices. These are often called Pre-Requisites that must be established before the HACCP Plan.


Identification of the Food Safety Critical Control Points (CCPs)

There is no single preferred CCP determination methodology. It is up to the food business and the HACCP team to apply a methodology of its choosing, on the condition the approach used consistently and accurately identifies CCPs.

Determination of Validated Critical Limits for each CCP

For each critical control point identified, a critical limit must be established to control the identified significant food safety hazard. Critical limits can be measurable or observable and should ideally have the capability to be monitored and measured in real time which separate acceptability from unacceptability of the food.


Each DDP must be scientifically validated before being implemented.

Establish Monitoring Procedures for Each CCP

Monitoring of CCPs is the scheduled measurement or observation at a CCP relative to its critical limits. The monitoring procedures should be able to detect a deviation at the CCP so that product can be isolated and issue resolved.

Plan and Take Corrective Action When Critical Limits Are Deviated

Despite having spent a considerable amount of time and resources on the development of the HACCP plan there will be instances when loss of control is experienced. In such instances it is important that the process is brought back under control as soon as possible and that established corrective actions are implemented.

Establish Validation and Verification Procedures the HACCP System

Before the HACCP plan can be implemented, its validation is needed; this ensures that it is capable of controlling the significant hazards identified. Verification includes activities such as; monitoring record reviews, calibration, sampling, corrective actions, and other methods to ensure the HACCP plan is working as intended.

Establish Documentation and Record Keeping for the HACCP FSMS System

Documentation and record-keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system and should be appropriate to the size of the organization. All HACCP procedures should be documented. To ensure that an organization can demonstrate effective control of critical safety (and quality activities if appropriate), documentation must demonstrate that hazards have been correctly identified and that critical limits are valid. Records must provide objective evidence that all monitoring, corrective action and verification activities have been conducted.

2020 Codex Changes and its Impact on your HACCP Plan

HACCP is the heart of a companies food safety management system.
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